Why weight gain in pregnancy?, reasons,required essentials nutrients.
Why weight gain in pregnancy?, reasons,required essentials nutrients
Weight gain in pregnancy|Recommended weight gain in kg(lb) with BMI(Body Mass Index)|metabolism and recommend intakes of nutrients in pregnancy|pregnancy in obese women|risk of obesity during pregnancy.
Introduction:Enabling pregnant women to meet their nutrient needs has long been a public health priority in the most other countries. This priority is based on evidence that undernutrition prior to and during the period of reproduction can have serious, short- and long-term adverse effects on the mother and child. Programs designed to improve maternal undernutrition are very cost-effective. In wealthier countries there is increasing information about how variability in diet, nutrient metabolism and requirements of individuals affects pregnancy weight gain, the risk of preterm delivery, birth defects, and other pregnancy outcomes. Well-designed studies on undernourished women in developing countries have revealed the impact that improved maternal nutrition can have on maternal and infant health. However, rates of preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth defects, and other pregnancy complications are still unacceptably high even in wealthier countries, and there is much to be learned about optimal maternal nutrient requirements during pregnancy and lactation.
Weight Gain During Pregnancy
Guidelines for pregnancy weight gain was needed because women are becoming pregnant when older and heavier, and are more likely to have multiple pregnancies and to gain too much weight in pregnancy. The guidelines continue to recognize that pregnancy weight gain is inversely related to the fatness (body mass index, BMI, weight/height2) of the woman at conception. The new recommended weight gains are associated with the lowest prevalence of cesarean delivery, excess postpartum weight retention, prematurity, low or high birth weight, and childhood obesity in each BMI category. BMI categories were changed to World Health Organization values.Pregnancy weight gain recommendations
Body mass index category Recommended weight gain kg (lb)
Rate of weight gain in second and third trimester Mean (range), lb/wk
•Low (BMI <18.5)
•Normal (BMI 18.5–24.9)
•Overweight (BMI >25.0–29.9)
•Obese (BMI ≥30.0)
It is important for women to enter pregnancy with as normal a BMI as possible; overweight and obesity increase the risk for gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. Recommended weight gain does not differ by maternal age, height or ethnicity.
Metabolism and Recommended Intakes of Nutrients
Essential nutrients in pregnancy
- Energy (kcal) Energy (MJ)
- Proteln (g)
- Vitamin A (ug RE)
- Vitamin D (ug)
- Vitamin E (mg a-tocopherol)
- Vitamin C (mg)
- Thiamin (mg)
- Rlboflavin (mg)
- Vitamin B6 (mg)
- Niacin (mg NE)
- Folate (ug dletary folate equlvalents)
- Vitamin B12 (g
- Pantothenic acld (mg)
- Blotin (g)
- Choline (mg)
- Phosphorus (mg)
- Magnesium (mg)
- Iron (mg
- Zinc (mg)
- lodine (ug Selenlum (ug)
- Fluoride (mg)
Pregnancy in the Obese Woman
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