Why weight gain in pregnancy?, reasons,required essentials nutrients.

Why weight gain in pregnancy?, reasons,required essentials nutrients

Weight gain in pregnancy|Recommended weight gain in kg(lb) with BMI(Body Mass Index)|metabolism and recommend intakes of nutrients in pregnancy|pregnancy in obese women|risk of obesity during pregnancy.


Why weight gain in pregnancy?, reasons,required essentials nutrients.

Introduction:

Enabling pregnant women to meet their nutrient needs has long been a public health priority in the most other countries. This priority is based on evidence that undernutrition prior to and during the period of reproduction can have serious, short- and long-term adverse effects on the mother and child. Programs designed to improve maternal undernutrition are very cost-effective. In wealthier countries there is increasing information about how variability in diet, nutrient metabolism and requirements of individuals affects pregnancy weight gain, the risk of preterm delivery, birth defects, and other pregnancy outcomes. Well-designed studies on undernourished women in developing countries have revealed the impact that improved maternal nutrition can have on maternal and infant health. However, rates of preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth defects, and other pregnancy complications are still unacceptably high even in wealthier countries, and there is much to be learned about optimal maternal nutrient requirements during pregnancy and lactation.

Weight Gain During Pregnancy

Why weight gain in pregnancy?, reasons,required essentials nutrients.

Guidelines for pregnancy weight gain was needed because women are becoming pregnant when older and heavier, and are more likely to have multiple pregnancies and to gain too much weight in pregnancy. The guidelines continue to recognize that pregnancy weight gain is inversely related to the fatness (body mass index, BMI, weight/height2) of the woman at conception. The new recommended weight gains are associated with the lowest prevalence of cesarean delivery, excess postpartum weight retention, prematurity, low or high birth weight, and childhood obesity in each BMI category. BMI categories were changed to World Health Organization values.Pregnancy weight gain recommendations

Body mass index category Recommended weight gain kg (lb)

Why weight gain in pregnancy?, reasons,required essentials nutrients.

Rate of weight gain in second and third trimester Mean (range), lb/wk

•Low (BMI <18.5)
12.5–18 (28–40)
1 (1–1.3)

•Normal (BMI 18.5–24.9)
11.5–16 (25–35)
1 (0.8–1)

•Overweight (BMI >25.0–29.9)
7–11.5 (15–25)
0.6 (0.5–0.7)

•Obese (BMI ≥30.0)
≥6.0 (11–20)
0.5 (0.4–0.6)

It is important for women to enter pregnancy with as normal a BMI as possible; overweight and obesity increase the risk for gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. Recommended weight gain does not differ by maternal age, height or ethnicity.

Metabolism and Recommended Intakes of Nutrients

Why weight gain in pregnancy?, reasons,required essentials nutrients.

The profound physiological changes that cause hemodilution, changes in the ratio of free to bound forms of nutrients, and alterations in nutrient turnover and homeostasis, affect our ability to assess nutritional status and requirements during pregnancy. For most nutrients the recommended intake is calculated using a factorial approach. This involves adding estimates of the amount of the nutrient deposited in the mother and fetus, and a factor to cover the inefficiency of utilization for tissue growth, to the requirements for non-pregnant women. For a few nutrients, including folate, some experimental data exist so recommendations can be based on the amount needed to maintain tissue levels and nutrient-dependent function. A summary of recommended nutrient intakes for pregnancy. Recommended intakes of nutrients for non-reproducing, pregnant, and lactating women take this nutritients as per physician recommendation it will be more help you.

Essential nutrients in pregnancy


  1. Energy (kcal) Energy (MJ)
  2. Proteln (g) 
  3. Vitamin A (ug RE) 
  4. Vitamin D (ug)
  5. Vitamin E (mg a-tocopherol)
  6. Vitamin C (mg)
  7. Thiamin (mg)
  8. Rlboflavin (mg) 
  9. Vitamin B6 (mg) 
  10. Niacin (mg NE)
  11. Folate (ug dletary folate equlvalents) 
  12. Vitamin B12 (g
  13. Pantothenic acld (mg)
  14. Blotin (g)
  15. Choline (mg) 
  16. Calcium(mg) 
  17. Phosphorus (mg) 
  18. Magnesium (mg) 
  19. Iron (mg
  20. Zinc (mg) 
  21. lodine (ug Selenlum (ug) 
  22. Fluoride (mg)


Pregnancy in the Obese Woman

Why weight gain in pregnancy?, reasons,required essentials nutrients.

There is general agreement that even moderate degrees of overweight increase the risk of pregnancy complications. Overweight women (BMI ≥25) have about two to six (increasing with higher BMI) times the risk of gestational diabetes, pregnancy hypertension and preeclampsia, diabetes, preterm delivery, and cesarean section compared with those with normal weight. Their infants are more likely to have low Apgar scores, macrosomia, about three times more perinatal mortality, a higher risk of NTDs, and difficulty in initiating breastfeeding. Macroscopic infants are more likely to become obese in later years. Many of these problems are probably caused by the relatively higher plasma insulin concentrations in obese women. Preconceptional counseling about the risks of obesity during pregnancy, followed by dietary counseling and exercise for weight reduction, is clearly the best preventive strategy. Once they become pregnant, obese women need careful monitoring for diabetes and hypertension, and should be advised to gain lower amounts of weight and to increase exercise.
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